41 - 52cm
60 - 72cm
0.4 - 1.3kg
20 - 35 yrs
The spectacled owl is a large tropical owl named for the distinctive facial markings surrounding its eyes. Six distinct subspecies have been identified, with the short-browed spectacled owl possibly being a separate species. It resides in forests from southern Mexico through to Central America, Brazil, Paraguay and northwestern Argentina.
Its upperparts, head and upper breast are black-brown whilst the facial markings are white and the underparts a yellowish-ochre. It has a pale beak. Notably, it is the only owl in the Pulsatrix genus to have yellow eyes. The juvenile is very distinctive, being completely white apart from a chocolate brown facial disc.
What Does it Look Like?
What Does it Sound Like?
In Brazil, spectacled owls are known locally as "knocking owls", as their sounds are a guttural knocking with a popping effect: PUP-pup-pup-pup-po, POK pok pok bog bog bog bobobo. The male is the primary singer, however duets between pairs have been heard on moonlit nights. Young spectacled owls beg with a harsh, high-pitched keew.
It preys on nocturnal mammals, such as opossums and bats, but also preys on small monkeys such as tamarins. Invertebrates like caterpillars, crabs and large insects supplement the diet, as do medium-sized birds like jays or motmots. It scans the area from a perch before dropping with a quick pounce when prey is located.
What Does it Eat?
Where Does it Nest?
It nests in an unlined tree cavity with no nesting material besides a surface of rotting wood. Although they lay 1-2 eggs, if two chicks are hatched only the strongest will survive. It will leave the nest at about 5–6 weeks but cannot fly well; it will depend on its parents for several months and may be fed for up to a year once fledged.
It is found in much of Central and South America, as well as in Mexico. It is primarily a bird of tropical rain forests, in areas where dense, old-growth forest is dense. However, it may enter secondary habitats when hunting, such as forest edges. They have also been found in dry forests, treed savanna plains, plantations and semi-open areas with trees.
Where Does it Live?
What is its Status?
The spectacled owl resides in a very large range and is therefore considered Least Concern by the IUCN. Despite not having any natural predators, it occurs at low densities due to its slow maturation. This therefore makes it vulnerable to man-made habitat destruction, which caused the extinction of an entire race (P. p. trinitatis) on Trinidad.
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